Pasta, Biscuit and Bread in Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea

21 November 201611 min reading

In Australia and New Zealand, where consumption of meat is common, sea food as well as various vegetables and fruits have laid the basis for diversification in consumption of bread, pasta and biscuit. The cuisine of Papua New Guinea is primarily vegetarian. Therefore, their most outstanding food products are bread, crepes and noodles with banana, coconut, lemon and green vegetables. country

The food culture of Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea bears remarkable traces of the cuisines of Britain, south east Asia and the Mediterranean. However, the dishes prepared with authentic food products of these regions also have an important role. In Australia and New Zealand, where consumption of meat is common, sea food as well as various vegetables and fruits have laid the basis for diversification in consumption of bread, pasta and biscuits. Fruits, including lemon, coconut, mango are used in bread and biscuits, while seafood such as shrimps, clams and fish are consumed with pasta and noodle. The cuisine of Papua New Guinea is primarily vegetarian. Therefore, their most outstanding food products are bread, crepes and noodles with banana, coconut, lemon and green vegetables.

BREAD CONSUMPTION IN AUSTRALIA Before Europeans reached Australia in lots in the 18th century, the nutrition habits of Australian natives were based on indigenous plants and hunted animals. With the onset of the colonial era, the basic food of the people living in the country was turned into bread, salted meat and tea. British colonialism in Australia brought about an influence of the British and Celtic cuisine in the region.

The bread culture in Australia dates back to centuries ago. The traditional bread of the country is the Damper Bread, which is made of wheat flour by shepherds baking it in their camp fire. The dough was made only with flour and water, and it was typically prepared in a size that can be wrapped around a stick to be baked in a camp fire, to keep the stomach full. Damper bread today is often baked by travellers and campers, or sold at bakeries with fruits added as ingredients as a traditional bread.

Today, Australian bread producers are faced with a remarkable change. There is an increasing competition among the bakeries located inside supermarkets, which has pushed the consumers away from typical bread produced at factories to industrial bakeries focused on producing special artisanal products. Nutritional ideas gaining popularity and increasing sensitivity for gluten has also forced the industry to transform itself towards production of special bread varieties. As a result, industrial producers have started to produce more healthy bread varieties enriched with various vitamins. In this respect, the increasing bread consumption in Australia mainly concentrates on fresh, premium products which give a home-made feeling.

In the central areas of Australia, the wheat flour is sometimes replaced by a local type of corn and spinifex plant, which is an authentic plant of Australia. One of the most important delicacies in modern bread culture is ginger. Used in almost all kind of baked products from biscuits to puddings, the ginger has also come into use in bread. Furthermore, the other popular varieties include spicy soda bread, bread with goat cheese and potato, rolled bread with rosemary, home-made pita bread, corn bread baked in pan, tortilla bread made of wheat flour, and corn bread with cheese and onions.

Although bread is the fundamental food product, the breakfast culture in Australia involves various grain-based products. Low-sugar cereals with rich fibre content are very popular. Lamington pancake seasoned with coconut slices are among the preferred food products for breakfast.

PASTA CONSUMPTION IN AUSTRALIA According to the data of International Pasta Organization (IPO), pasta consumption per capita is 4 kg per year in Australia. Australians are known to prefer grains and grain-based products as compared to other food groups. Pasta is considered as one of the fundamental food products in Australia, and it is often consumed as the main dish for dinner. The most popular varieties of industrial pasta are spaghetti, vermicelli and fresh pasta filled with fresh ingredients.

As is the case for the whole world, Australia has also been influenced by other cuisines. Therefore, it is not surprising for an Australian to have Italian pasta sauces or Chinese noodles at their dinner tables. Australians have a pasta culture that is similar to Italians, and they are fond of seasoning their pasta with seafood. The sauces made with tuna, shrimps and snapper fish are very popular. Also, various locally cultivated vegetables, including asparagus, broccoli, celery, cauliflower, leek and squash are important ingredients for sauces. Noodle consumption is also common in Australia, and the most preferred varieties are noodle in curry sauce, noodle with chicken, noodle with barbecue sauce, fried noodle and spicy noodle with veal.

BISCUIT CONSUMPTION IN AUSTRALIA Australians prefer sweet biscuits rather than salty biscuits, and the most popular varieties are the coconut and out biscuits with a crispy texture. One of the most famous biscuits of Australia is the Anzac biscuit with oat and coconut. Baked with coconut, oat, flour, butter, soda and sugar, Anzac biscuits are one of the most consumed biscuit varieties in the country. Milo, which is made with malt and coconut, as well as Monte Carlo biscuits, baked with syrup and coconut and consumed with vanilla and raspberry jam, and shortbread consumed with drops of jam, and ginger biscuits are very popular.

Apart from biscuits, the desserts that have been identified with Australia are commonly consumed. One of the most popular desserts is the Pavlova cake. Named after the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova, the cake is prepared with corn starch, scrambled cream and fruits, and therefore it is very light. Furthermore, the Lamington cake which is prepared with coconut, cream and fine-sieved flour is one of the most popular desserts among Australians. Jelly slices, which is made by coating sweet biscuits with cinnamon and lemon parfait, and further coating the parfait with fruit jelly, have become one of the essentials for celebrations and special days.

The most popular product among salty snacks is the Chiko Roll, which is also a street food variety. Chiko roll, which is basically cabbage, carrots, onions and celery wrapped in a layer of dough and fried in vegetable oil, is very similar to the Chinese spring rolls. The only difference is that it is made with vegetables instead of meat, and it is one of the popular street food varieties. Another sweet snack is the Magic Bread which is prepared with butter and coloured cake topping on white toast bread.

BREAD CONSUMPTION IN NEW ZEALAND The New Zealand cuisine mainly consists of local products. Bearing similarities to the Australian cuisine, the New Zealand cuisine is heavily influenced by Britain. However, the traces of the Mediterranean and Pacific cuisines are also obvious. The main meal of the day in New Zealand is the dinner, and the dishes are primarily made with meat. The people of New Zealand are known to traditionally consume white bread. Consumption of whole-grain bread has been on the rise with the effect of migrants arriving from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Scandinavian countries and Germany.

A typical breakfast in New Zealand basically consists of cereals. Grain-based biscuits with low sugar and high fibre content, which are also popular in Australia, are preferred as an alternative to bread for breakfast in New Zealand. The coffee culture is very common in the country, and many people have their breakfasts with coffee and toast. Maori bread is one of the most popular bread varieties in New Zealand. Maori bread is a sweet bread made with sourdough, warm water, sugar and flour. Another popular bread variety is the Rewena bread. Rewena bread is made of potato dough. Potatoes are boiled and mashed, and then mixed with flour and sugar. The duration of fermentation and preparation may take up to a few days. Rewena bread is both sweet and sour at the same time. Another bread variety preferred by the people of New Zealand is the Takaku bread. Takaku bread does not contain any baking soda or similar ingredients to make the dough swell. This bread requires using a lot of flour, and it is typically consumed with butter, jam and tea. Another popular bread type is the Kiwi bread. Kiwi is made of brown sugar, lemon peel, flour, baking soda, soda and sugar powder, and is commonly consumed for breakfast or as snacks.

PASTA CONSUMPTION IN NEW ZEALAND It can be suggested that the ethnic groups of New Zealand have a remarkable influence in the cuisine of New Zealand. Pasta is one of such dishes. Pasta was not included in the nutrition culture of New Zealand until 19th century; and the country started importing pasta in the 20th century. With the opening of pasta production facilities in New Zealand, the consumption of spaghetti with tomato sauce significantly increased. The increasing number of Italian restaurants in the country also contribute to the development of the pasta culture. According to a survey, lasagne and pasta sauces are among the recipes which are searched the most by the people of New Zealand on the internet. As the consumption of seafood is common, pasta sauces made of shrimps, clams and other shellfish are very popular. Furthermore, the sauces made of meat or pasta served with meat is also very common since the consumption of geese, ducks and veal is very popular. Mushrooms, tomatoes, green vegetables, garlic, broccoli and asparagus are the most popular ingredients for pasta sauces. Since there is a significant influence of the Mediterranean cuisine, olive oil and dried tomatoes often accompany pasta. Furthermore, pasta salad made with local and imported vegetables is a very popular dish. The other products which are commonly mixed with dishes are lemon, kiwi and mango. The ingredients which are often used in bread or in sauces are among the most popular fruits in New Zealand.

The New Zealand cuisine contains numerous items from the Mediterranean and British cuisine as well as from South East Asian and Pacific cuisine, and the consumption of noodles is becoming highly popular. Noodles, vermicelli and ravioli made with cheese, carrots, cabbage, asparagus and other vegetables are very popular.

BISCUIT CONSUMPTION IN NEW ZEALAND Almost all biscuits that are consumed in Australia are also popular in New Zealand. One of the most remarkable examples to this is the Anzac biscuits. Afghan biscuits are also one of the most popular biscuits in New Zealand. Named by its dark chocolate colour, these biscuits are made of butter, sugar, flour, cacao, cornflakes and milk. Seasoned with walnuts on the top, these biscuits are one of the oldest recipes in New Zealand. Another popular type of biscuits is the ginger and chocolate cookies. Honey, jam, almonds, chocolate chips and pumpkin seed are the most commonly used ingredients for biscuits. Considering that oat is the second most popular grain after wheat, it is not surprising to see how commonly oat is used in cookies and biscuits.

Lolly Cake, which is considered as an authentic national food in New Zealand, is also very popular. The cake uses the traditional candies of Eskimos, and it is not known since when this cake has been made in New Zealand. Made with malt biscuits, marshmallow, milk and coconut, this dessert is often consumed for celebrations and special occasions. Another dessert for special occasions is the steamed cake. Made with yoghurt, syrup, baking soda, soda and flour, this cake can be consumed plain or with lemon.

BREAD CONSUMPTION IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA Traditionally a vegetarian cuisine, Papua New Guinea cuisine typically uses root plants, sweet potato and banana, coconut, pineapple, papaya and mango. The diversity of the vegetation has led to a vegetarian nutrition habit, although there is a remarkable influence of Chinese, Japanese, Malaysian, Vietnamese and the Mediterranean cuisines. The local cuisine also involves consumption of fish.

The essential ingredients in Papua New Guinea are rice, Indian semolina and sweet potato. People typically start their day with coffee or tea accompanied by small cakes or bakery products. These cakes and bakery products are usually made with fruits. Another food product preferred for breakfast is the crepe or pancakes consumed with fruits.

PASTA CONSUMPTION IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA Although the consumption of noodles and pasta is on the rise in Papua New Guinea, boiled rice is the most popular dish accompanying the main course, since the most common food product is rice. With a nutrition habit based on vegetable soups, seafood and fruits, the people of the country often prefer pasta and noodle served with sauces made of vegetables, fruits and seafood.

BISCUIT CONSUMPTION IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA The snack culture in Papua New Guinea is based on fruits. The country produces large amounts of bananas, pineapples and mangoes, and the most popular desserts are made with these fruits. The most common dessert is the banana cake. Made of multi-purpose flour, baking soda, milk, banana, butter and sugar, banana cake is one of the most popular desserts in the country. Served with coconut powder on the top, the dessert is considered as one of the nationa food products.


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