“Wheat flour is a product obtained by grinding the endosperm part of wheat by purifying it from other parts to certain levels. Wheat flour is not a homogeneous substance with a fixed composition. The main components of wheat flour are; water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, mineral substances, vitamins and enzymes. Each component has different importance and function. Their amount in flour, their ratio to each other and their internal composition also vary greatly depending on various factors.”
Erke ADK Gıda
In Turkey, where grain-based eating habits are widespread, 66% of the energy consumed per person is met by cereals and 56% of this is met by bread. The huge demand for bread leads to the rapid introduction of flour to the market and an increase in the speed of bread production. In addition, with the effect of the negativities from wheat germ and agriculture, the change in gluten properties and enzyme levels in flour; wheat type occurs due to climatic conditions, water pests, stocking time and many other reasons. Such flours, which cause differences in terms of dough and bread characteristics at the stage of offering for consumption,must be introduced into a standard in flour factories. Therefore, the use of flour developers in flour mills became needed. The appropriate type and amount of oxidant and enzyme mixtures in the flour developers help the flour to gain a certain standard. The effect of enzymes and oxidants is specific on the components of theflour. For this reason, it is necessary to know the flour components very well. In Product Development Laboratories, the most appropriate enzyme and requirement ratio for the product variety are determined by Food Engineers.
Wheat flour is a product obtained by grinding the endosperm part of wheat by purifying it from other parts to certain levels. Wheat flour is not a homogeneous substance with a fixed composition. The main components of wheat flour are; water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, mineral substances, vitamins and enzymes. Each component has different importance and function. Their amount in flour, their ratio to each other and their internal composition also vary greatly depending on various factors.
The most commondevelopers of technological use in flour mills are oxidants and enzymes.
L-Ascorbic Acid: Although L-ascorbic acid ( LAA), which is widely used today, is actually a reducing substance, when added to the dough, it reacts with atmospheric oxygen under the action of ascorbic acid oxidase and oxidizes to dehydro L-ascorbic acid (DHLAA), the active form in the dough. DHLAA then reacts with sulfidril groups of flour and reduces them to disulfide, playing an important role in the formation of its core structure. The functional properties of the pulp depend significantly on gluten proteins. Cross-linking of proteins or the formation of other bonds, especially covalent bonds between polypeptide chains, is important in terms of increasing the functions of proteins. Oxidant substances oxidize two neighboring cysteine molecules (-SH) in the protein matrix and provide the formation of S-S bonds, thus improving the structures of the bonds between proteins, helping to improve the structural properties of the dough and improve the quality of dough and bread. It is known that the doughs prepared using oxidant substances make a higher oven splash and the breads have a better volume, the knife opening improves, the pore structure inside the bread is small and thin-walled, and the textures have a soft and velvety structure.
Alpha Amylase Enzyme; It converts starch into fermentable sugars, CO2 and ethyl alcohol, helping to take place fermentation and shell development. It is one of the most important enzymes used in bread making. The fermentation development of dough depends significantly on amylase activity. Starch, which is damaged at the time of learning, is hydrolyzed as a result of alpha and beta amylase activity during the kneading and fermentation processes. The damaged starch is broken down into malto dextrins by the enzyme alpha amylase, and the malto-dextrins into free maltose by the enzyme beta amylase. Intracellular enzymes in yeast also break down maltose into glucose. Using simple sugars (glucose and maltose) formed in this way, yeast forms the carbon dioxide gas and alcohols necessary for the dough to swell. Indirectly affects elasticity. In addition to fermentation, the bread provides the formation of sugars necessary for the development of the shell structure. The resulting gas expands at the oven temperature, allowing the bread to turn into a more voluminous, properly internally structured, easily digestible foodstuff.
HEmicellulase Enzyme, exceptfor starch, contains approximately 2-3% polysaccharide pentosans. Pentosans are divided into two groups as water-soluble and insoluble, and the water-insoluble group is known as hemicellulose. With the enzyme hemicellulase, hemicellulose is converted into large molecular weight polysaccharides that are soluble in water. These polysaccharides regulate the intestinal flora and buffer the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Thus, the amount of harmful metabolites left by these microorganisms in the environment is reduced and the risk of colon cancer is minimized. The mechanism of action of hemicellulase, pentazones bind about 23% of the water added to the dough. With the addition of enzyme to the dough, endoxylanase breaks the glycosidic bonds in the dough at random places and reduces the polymerization degree of the polysaccharide so that the water held in the dough is released. Thus, the dough has a softer texture. The use of hemicellulase regulates the distribution of water in the dough and bread, making the dough softer and easier to machine. Increases fermentation tolerance, baking stability, oven splashing and bread volume. It positively affects the color of the inside of the bread, pore structure, texture and stability.
The Glucose Oxidase Enzyme catalyzes glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of molecular oxygen. The released hydrogen peroxide causes the SH groups (S-S) in gluten proteins to oxidize into their bridges or cause tosine cross-linking. This ensures that the dough is strengthened, processed comfortably, the gas generated during fermentation is better retained, the dough stability is increased and the volume of the final product, the bread, is increased.
Lipase Enzyme, Polar lipids positively affect the volume of bread, while non-polar lipids affect it negatively. Lipolytic enzymes break down triglycerides into diglycerides, mono glycerides and free fatty acids. Hydrolysis of triglycerides reduces the proportion of polar lipids, which adversely affects the quality of bread, improves the stability of gas cells. Thus, it provides an increase in the volume of bread. Lipolytic enzymes also have effects on the shelf life of bread.
In order to ensure the final product standard and to meet customer expectations and satisfaction, the variety of enzymes used in different product groups of industrial bakery products is increasing.