Oils and fats in bakery products

13 March 20245 min reading

Shabnam Garkani
Scientific Sales Manager
Pak Fan Company

The use of oils and fats in bakery products has been popular for a long time to increase the quality of the texture, softness and durability of the products. The role of these fats, in addition to the good taste, is a lot of changes in the texture of the products, which usually makes it very difficult to remove or replace them. slow The texture of butter or animal oils is different from the texture of vegetable oils, and producers of alternative products face many challenges to create a similar texture.

Structurally, butter and margarine both consist of a continuous fat phase in which droplets of water and liquid fat as well as small fat crystals are dispersed. The fat in butter is derived from milk, while that in margarine is usually plant-based (so margarine is not a true dairy product). However, their texture and application are so similar that they are considered together.

The key characteristics of the texture of these products are firmness, spreadability and smoothness. Firmness and spreadability are affected by the solid-to-liquid fat ratio, which is affected by product temperature. This ratio can be varied over a fairly wide range in margarine, but less so in butter. As a result, margarine is generally more spreadable than butter. Some countries allow producers to reduce the ratio of solid to liquid fat in butter by using vegetable oil.

The plasticity of butter and margarine is the result of the three-dimensional network of fat crystals. Mechanical operations can be used to soften the product by destroying this structure.

The effect of storage on butter and margarine includes growth of fat crystals and strengthening of network bonds. The growth of fat crystals in both products leads to increased hardness and sensory graininess. Storage at low temperature increases granulation.

The spreadability of margarine and butter is very important for consumer acceptance. This is a physical property and results from the fact that these products consist of a dispersion of solid fat crystals in liquid oil. The ratio of solid to liquid fat in a product is probably the most important determinant of hardness and spreadability. However, hardness and softness are not the only factors affecting playability. Smoothness and fragility are also important.

This parameter is more related to the size and shape of the fat crystals than to their quantity. A product is smooth when the crystals are relatively small. Brittleness is associated with high solid fat content or excessive size of fat crystals. In this condition, the large crystals are joined together and create a brittle product.

Rheological properties of semi-solid foods such as margarine are important in process design, quality control and new product development. Soft margarine or breakfast/table margarine is mainly used as a product for toast and sandwiches. When the margarine comes out of the fridge, it should be spread evenly and evenly on the bread.


Fats and oils perform many functions in cake products, during the dough aerating process, fats are trapped in the air, which affects the quality of the cake’s texture and ability to store, retain moisture, and its shelf life properties.

Margarines or fats that are too hard cause poor aeration. Conversely, margarines can be soft enough to provide enough resistance to the mixer blades to create a lump-free, well-emulsified batter. Butter and other milk fat derivatives are widely used in bakery products, especially in cakes, due to their favorable taste. Although bakers still prefer to use butter, changes in the quality and price of butter have increased the search for butter substitutes in cake recipes. Margarine can be suitable for the production of cake products if the melting range, consistency and properties Mix them well. The use of cake emulsifiers can increase the aeration and improve the texture of the cake, which usually the manufacturers of industrial products help to improve its properties by adding these ingredients to margarine.


In general, margarine for puff pastry applications should be plastic, firm and have a consistent consistency. During lamination, margarine or fat should spread easily without breaking. The distinctive features of this type of margarine are malleability and stiffness. The flexibility to form smooth, unbroken layers of fat between the dough layers during the dough folding operation is essential to achieve more than 1,200 layers. Hardness is as important as plasticity, because soft margarine can be absorbed by the dough and lose its role as a separator between the dough layers, and if margarine is hard, it cannot provide the necessary plasticity during lamination. It breaks and the layers of the dough may stick together in some places and affect the final shape and volume of the desired product. Puffing and increasing 5 to 6 times in the height of the pastry shell after baking can be a sign of the satisfactory performance of margarine.

Stable Micro System texture analysis device provides a wide range of tests and probes to test the quality of oil products, fat substitutes and their suitability as a substitute for traditional fats.

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